A golden spire crowning a conical wooded hill, Swayambhunath Stupa is the most ancient and enigmatic of all the holy shrines in Kathmandu valley. Its lofty white dome and glittering golden spire are visible for many miles and from all sides of the valley. Historical records found on a stone inscription give evidence that the stupa was already an important Buddhist pilgrimage destination by the 5th century AD. Its origins however, date to a much earlier time, long before the arrival of Buddhism into the valley. A collection of legends about the site, the 15th century Swayambhu Purana, tells of a miraculous lotus, planted by a past Buddha, which blossomed from the lake that once covered Kathmandu valley. The lotus mysteriously radiated a brilliant light, and the name of the place came to be Swayambhu, meaning 'Self-Created or Self-Existent'. Saints, sages and divinities traveled to the lake to venerate this miraculous light for its power in granting enlightenment. During this time, the Bodhisatva Manjushri was meditating at the sacred mountain of Wu Tai Shan and had a vision of the dazzling Swayambhu light. Manjushri flew across the mountains of China and Tibet upon his blue lion to worship the lotus. Deeply impressed by the power of the radiant light, Manjushri felt that if the water were drained out of the lake Swayambhu would become more easily accessible to human pilgrims. With a great sword Manjushri cut a gorge in the mountains surrounding the lake. The water, draining away, left the valley of present day Kathmandu. The lotus was then transformed into a hill and the light became the Swayabhunath StupaSwayambhunath's worshippers include Hindus, Vajrayana Buddhists of northern Nepal and Tibet, and the Newari Buddhists of central and southern Nepal. Each morning before dawn, hundreds of pilgrims will ascend the 365 steps that lead up the hill, file past the gilded Vajra (Tibetan: Dorje) and two lions guarding the entrance, and begin a series of clockwise circumambulations of the stupa (Newari Buddhists circle in the opposite, counterclockwise direction).
Friday, August 28, 2009
Pashupatinath Temple - situated 5 kms east of Kathmandu on the bank of sacred Bagmati river, the temple of Lord Shiva with two tiered golden roof and silver doors is famous for its super architecture.
It is a centre of annual pilgrimage on the day of Maha Shivaratri.
Monday, August 24, 2009
Black holes are the evolutionary endpoints of stars at least 10 to 15 times as massive as the Sun. If a star that massive or larger undergoes a supernova explosion, it may leave behind a fairly massive burned out stellar remnant. With no outward forces to oppose gravitational forces, the remnant will collapse in on itself. The star eventually collapses to the point of zero volume and infinite density, creating what is known as a " singularity ". As the density increases, the path of light rays emitted from the star are bent and eventually wrapped irrevocably around the star. Any emitted photons are trapped into an orbit by the intense gravitational field; they will never leave it. Because no light escapes after the star reaches this infinite density, it is called a black hole.
But contrary to popular myth, a black hole is not a cosmic vacuum cleaner. If our Sun was suddenly replaced with a black hole of the same mass, the Earth's orbit around the Sun would be unchanged. (Of course the Earth's temperature would change, and there would be no solar wind or solar magnetic storms affecting us.) To be "sucked" into a black hole, one has to cross inside the Schwarzschild radius. At this radius, the escape speed is equal to the speed of light and once light passes through, even it cannot escape.
The Schwarzschild radius can be calculated using the equation for escape speed:
vesc = (2GM/R)1/2
For photons, or objects with no mass, we can substitute c (the speed of light) for Vesc and find the Schwarzschild radius, R, to be
R = 2GM/c2
If the Sun was replaced with a black hole that had the same mass as the Sun, the Schwarzschild radius would be 3 km (compared to the Sun's radius of nearly 700,000 km). Hence the Earth would have to get very close to get sucked into a black hole at the center of our Solar System.
Saturday, August 22, 2009
Sunday, August 16, 2009
Popular as trekking, hiking and recreation area, the Shivapuri National Park offers the nearest retreat away from the hubbub of city life. The park was established as a Watershed and Wildlife Reserve in 1976. the park was declared as national ark in 2003 for the protection of its unique natural adornments. Vegetation varieties in the park include its 129 species of mushrooms while animals include 19 speces of mammals include beer, leopard, deer, wild boar, wildcat and langur monkey. The park also boasts of 177 species of birds and 102 species of butterflies.
Langtang is one of the most unspoiled national parks of Nepal. Situated North of Kathmandu, it is the most easily accessible highland sanctuary from the capital. Langtang covers 1,710 sq. km. forming the upper catchment areas of two of Nepal's largest river systems - the Trishuli and Koshi. There is great latitudinal variation, starting at 1,500 m. and ascending to the top of Mt. Langtang Lirung at 7,234 m. As a result the park has immense ecological diversity. Some of the most attractive areas of the park include the Langtang Valley, the holy lakes at Gosainkunda, and the forested hillsides above the village of Helambu. The deep gorges of Bhote Koshi and Langtang Khola are thickly forested with rhododendron, oak, maple and alder. The stretch of forest around Ghoda Tabela in the lower Langtang Valley and below Gosainkunda is inhabited by the red panda, a rare and threatened symbol of a healthy Himalayan ecosystem. Other animals, common to these forests are wild boar, Himalayan black bear, ghoral, grey langur monkey and leopard. The rare Himalayan hony guide has been sighted here and the park is also the home for Impeyan, Tragopan and kalij pheasants among others. Larch, a rare deciduous conifer, is also found in the forest of lower Langtang Valley. Further up, Himalayan tahr, musk deer and snow leopard can be found. The upper Langtang Valley is one of he few known breeding grounds of the ibils bills besides the Tibetan snow cock and snow partridge.
Like other Himalayan nature parks, Langtang has to be explored on foot. There are several possible trails to choose from depending on preference and time available. The langtang Valley is easily approached from Dhunche town and park office, which is a day's drive from Kathmandu. The upper reaches of Langtang can be reached in four days of easy walking, however, it is advisable to spend a few days around the forest at Ghoda Tabela to watch for the red panda. Once above Langtang village and the monastery at Kyangin, visitors can explore the high valley of Langshisa Yala peak and Tsero, Ri. These and other villages of upper Langtang are inhabited by people of Tibetan descent whereas the villagers of Dhunche, Bharkhu and Syabru further down are home to the Tamangs of Nepal's middle hills.
Unique among natural heritage sites world-wide is the Sagarmatha National Park, which includes Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and other high peaks such as Lhotse Shar, Cho Oyu, Ama Dablam, Pumori, Kangtega, Gyachung Kang, Thamserku and Kwangde. Located North-east of Kathmandu, Sagarmatha National Park is 1,148 sq km. in area and consists of the upper catchment areas of the Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi and the Imja Khola rivers. Much of the park lies above 3,000m. Sagarmatha is rugged, with deep gorges, glaciers and unnegotiable ice and rock faces. Locally known as the 'Khumbu', it is the home of the famous Sherpa people. The Sherpas make a living by farming barley and potatoes and graze their yaks in high altitude pastures. Young Sherpas have also made their name in mountaineering and the trekking industry has of late become the community's economic mainstay. In 1979 the park was declared a World Heritage Site. Trees such as rhododendron, birch, blue pine, juniper and silver fir are found up to an altitude of 4,000 meters above which they give way to scrub and alpine plants. In late spring and summer, the hillsides around the villages of Namche Bazaar, Khumjung, Thyangboche and Thame are a riot of colours with several species of rhododendon in bloom. Wildlife most likely to be seen in Sagarmatha are the Himalaya tahr, ghoral, musk deer, pikka (mouse hare) weasel and occasionally jackal. Other rarely seen animals are Himalayan black bear, wolf, lynx and snow leopard. Birds commonly seen are Impeyan pheasant, blood pheasant, snow cock, snow pigeon, red billed and yellow billed chough, Himalayan griffin vulture and lammergeier.
Shey Phoksundo is Nepal's largest national park and covers 3,555 sq. km. Sitting astride the Dolpa and Mugu districts of western Nepal, the park was established to protect the trans-Himalayan ecosystem found only in few areas of the Kingdom. The unique park includes the Kanjiroba Himal, with many peaks of over 6,000 meters, as well as the famous Shey Monastery, the Phoksundo Lake and the Langu Gorge. The flora of the area include pine, walnut, willow, oak, poplar and cypress in the lower southern parts. In the higher reaches, pine, spruce, juniper and birch pre-dominate. The alpine areas are vegetated by berberries, wild rose and caragana. The and trans-Himalayan mountains and grassy alpine meadows to the north are almost devoid of trees but have caragana and dwarf juniper. The wildlife of Shey Phoksundo include a good popula-tion of blue sheep and ghoral, musk deer, leopard, wild dog, wolf, marmot, weasel, mouse hare, rhesus and langur monkeys. The higher reaches and the haunt of the elusive snow leopard. The adjoining Tibetan region is home to such rare animals as the great Tibetan sheep, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan gazelle and antelope, and wild yak. Bird species of the park include the Impeyan and cheer Pheasant, chough, raven, Tibetan snow cock, Tibetan twit, brown dipper, Himalayan griffon and lammergeier. The park is inhabited by people of Tibetan descent who follow the pre-Buddist Bon religion and some of the main villages are Ringmo, Pugmo, Salclang, Kugun, and Tatgaun. On the august full moon all Dolpa villagers converge on the Shey (Crystal) Mountain in a festival to walk around the holy peak three times in as many days.
Nepal has nine National Parks, three Wildlife Reserves, three Conservation Areas and one Hunting Reserve. About 15,000 square kilometers amounting to almost 18 percent of the total area is protected. This is an amazing commitment to conservation.
Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area
Sagarmatha National Park
Annapurna Conservation Area
Makalu Barun National Park
Shukla Phant Wildlife Reserve
Chitwan National Park
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Langtang National Park
Koshi-Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Shivapuri National Park
Manaslu Conservation Area
Khaptad National Park
Parsa Wildlife Reserve
Rara National Park
Bardia National Park
Friday, August 14, 2009
Trekking is by far Nepal’s biggest attraction. Most tourists embark on some trek or the other and many do multiple treks before heading back home. Some arrive each year to do a different trek each time. A trek is also the best means of seeing the country and to understand its people. Walking through emerald rice fields; through rhododendron forests; crossing streams, camping out on a hilltop in the wilderness with towering mountains in the background, make trekking an unforgettable experience.One can also do pony treks in some remote places, which is equally enthralling for visitors. Pony treks are offered mostly in western region of Pokhara, Dolpo and Lo Manthang (Mustang). The two most popular treks are the Everest Base Camp Trek and the Around Annapurna also known as the Annapurna Circuit as it goes right around the Annapurna range. There are many different treks offered in the Everest and Annapurna regions. Other popular regions are the Langtang valley, Helambu, Makalu, Manaslu, Kanchenjunga and the Arun Valley. Another popular destination in the Everest region is the Gokyo valley.
There are 1,310 peaks above 6000 meters of which 238 are open for climbing. The following are Nepalese peaks over 8000m in height and open for climbing: Mt. Everest (8,848m),. Kanchenjunga (8,586m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu (8,463m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Dhaulagiri (8,167m), Manaslu (8,163m) and Annapurna (8,091m).
Nepal first came into world focus when Tenzing Norgay Sherpa of Nepal and Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand conquered Mt. Everest in 1953. Ever since, there have been countless expeditions heading off to the Himalayas. With eight of world’s highest peaks within Nepal’s boundaries, there is tremendous interest in the Nepal Himalaya. Most of the peaks over 8000m high were conquered during the Golden Decade of Climbing in the 1950s. Climbing by then had become a national affair with various nations vying with each other to be the first to climb. Today it is all about breaking records. There are some 326 peaks in Nepal open for mountaineering today.Climbing permits for peaks in the Nepal Himalayas are issued for all seasons by the Mountaineering Section of the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. The requisite official documents must be furnished when seeking permission to climb. Around 121 peaks do not require liaison officers for expedition while the rest must be accompanied by one.Climbing gear and equipments can be bought or rented in Kathmandu or the whole expedition can be handled by mountaineering and trekking agencies. All logistics are taken care of by these agencies including gear, food, transportation, guide and porter services. They also arrange for insurance coverage. Always choose an agency that has a good track record.
Wednesday, August 12, 2009
Accutane can cause severe, life-threatening birth defects if the mother takes the medication during pregnancy. Even one dose of Accutane can cause major birth defects of the baby's ears, eyes, face, skull, heart, and brain. Never use Accutane if you are pregnant.Women of child-bearing potential must agree in writing to use two specific forms of birth control and have regular pregnancy tests before, during, and after taking Accutane. Unless you have had a total hysterectomy or have been in menopause for at least a year, you are considered to be of child-bearing potential.Accutane is available only under a special program called iPLEDGE. You must be registered in the program and sign agreements to use birth control and undergo pregnancy testing as required by the program. Read all program brochures and agreements carefully.It is dangerous to try and purchase Accutane on the Internet or from vendors outside of the United States. The sale and distribution of Accutane outside of the iPLEDGE program violates the regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the safe use of this medication.
Accutane is a form of vitamin A. It reduces the amount of oil released by oil glands in your skin, and helps your skin renew itself more quickly.Accutane is used to treat severe nodular acne. It is usually given after other acne medicines or antibiotics have been tried without successful treatment of symptoms.Accutane may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Abilify is not for use in psychotic conditions that are related to dementia. Abilify may cause heart failure, sudden death, or pneumonia in older adults with dementia-related conditions. Stop using Abilify and call your doctor at once if you have the following symptoms: fever with stiff muscles and rapid heart rate; uncontrolled muscle movements; symptoms that come on suddenly such as numbness or weakness, severe headache, and problems with vision, speech, or balance. Abilify can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol, which can increase some of the side effects of Abilify. Before you take aripiprazole, tell your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by Abilify. Avoid becoming overheated or dehydrated. Drink plenty of fluids, especially in hot weather and during exercise. It is easier to become dangerously overheated and dehydrated while you are taking Abilify.
Abilify (aripiprazole) is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain.Abilify are used to treat the symptoms of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depression). It is also used together with other medications to treat major depressive disorder in adults. Abilify may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions, notably in the USA, Unites Kingdom, Canada and Australia) that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, specifically property that is fixed in location. Real estate law is the body of regulations and legal codes which pertain to such matters under a particular jurisdiction and include things such as commercial and residential real property transactions. Real estate is often considered synonymous with real property (also sometimes called realty), in contrast with personal property (also sometimes called chattel or personality under chattel law or personal property law).However, in some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land and fixtures together, as distinguished from "real property" referring to ownership of land and appurtenances, including anything of a permanent nature such as structures, trees, minerals, and the interest, benefits, and inherent rights thereof. Real property is typically considered to be Immovable property. The terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property.
Presently, the foreign exchange market is one of the largest and most liquid financial markets in the world. Traders include large banks, central banks, currency speculators, corporations, governments, and other financial institutions. The average daily volume in the global foreign exchange and related markets is continuously growing. Daily turnover was reported to be over US$ 3.2 trillion in April 2007 by the Bank for International Settlements. Since then, the market has continued to grow. According to Euro money's annual FX Poll, volumes grew a further 41% between 2007 and 2008. Of the $3.98 trillion daily global turnover, trading in London accounted for around $1.36 trillion, or 34.1% of the total, making London by far the global center for foreign exchange. In second and third places respectively, trading in New York accounted for 16.6%, and Tokyo accounted for 6.0%. In addition to "traditional" turnover, $2.1 trillion was traded in derivatives.Exchange-traded FX futures contracts were introduced in 1972 at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and are actively traded relative to most other futures contracts.Several other developed countries also permit the trading of FX derivative products (like currency futures and options on currency futures) on their exchanges. All these developed countries already have fully convertible capital accounts. Most emerging countries do not permit FX derivative products on their exchanges in view of prevalent controls on the capital accounts. However, a few select emerging countries (e.g., Korea, South Africa, India) have already successfully experimented with the currency futures exchanges, despite having some controls on the capital account.FX futures volume has grown rapidly in recent years, and accounts for about 7% of the total foreign exchange market volume, according to The Wall Street Journal Europe.
Monday, August 10, 2009
Thursday, August 6, 2009
Tuesday, August 4, 2009
Kirats were very ancient peoples who existence are described also in the Hindu epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. There is a conflict about the word Kirat. Someone says that Kirat word comes from the Sanskrit in which Kirat means people who lives in boundary area. They were from Tibet or china; somebody says they were from northern part of Persia, Egypt. Very little is known about this period in the history of Nepal. The Kirats ruled for about 526 years and were ruled by about 28 kings during that time. The first and best remembered king was Yalambar whereas the last king is Gasti. Legend credits him with meeting Indra, the lord of heaven, who ventured into the Valley in human guise. He had the dubious honor of being slain in the epic battle of the Mahabharata, in which gods and mortals fought alongside each other. Another remarkable event during this period is the coming of Gautama Buddha in the time of the seventh king named Humati who was very brave. The Buddha supposedly spent time in Patan, where he elevated the blacksmith caste to goldsmiths and bestowed upon them the name of his own clan, Sakya. The great emperor of India, Ashoka, was also a visitor to Kathmandu in this period during the rule of Jetedasti As a follower of Buddhism, Ashoka visited Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha, and erected the Ashoka pillar in Lumbini and stupas in Kathmandu. His daughter married a local prince and further spread the religion. Kirats main religion is Shaiba which means to worship lord Shiva. As the Kirat dynasty came to an end in the valley, they went to the riverside of Tamakoshi and Arun and formed a kingdom under Nepal kingdom. Kirats were still remained in the eastern mountains where they are considered to be the forefathers of today’s Rai and Limbu castes.