Custom Search

Friday, August 28, 2009

Famous temple of kathmandu, Swayambhunath

A golden spire crowning a conical wooded hill, Swayambhunath Stupa is the most ancient and enigmatic of all the holy shrines in Kathmandu valley. Its lofty white dome and glittering golden spire are visible for many miles and from all sides of the valley. Historical records found on a stone inscription give evidence that the stupa was already an important Buddhist pilgrimage destination by the 5th century AD. Its origins however, date to a much earlier time, long before the arrival of Buddhism into the valley. A collection of legends about the site, the 15th century Swayambhu Purana, tells of a miraculous lotus, planted by a past Buddha, which blossomed from the lake that once covered Kathmandu valley. The lotus mysteriously radiated a brilliant light, and the name of the place came to be Swayambhu, meaning 'Self-Created or Self-Existent'. Saints, sages and divinities traveled to the lake to venerate this miraculous light for its power in granting enlightenment. During this time, the Bodhisatva Manjushri was meditating at the sacred mountain of Wu Tai Shan and had a vision of the dazzling Swayambhu light. Manjushri flew across the mountains of China and Tibet upon his blue lion to worship the lotus. Deeply impressed by the power of the radiant light, Manjushri felt that if the water were drained out of the lake Swayambhu would become more easily accessible to human pilgrims. With a great sword Manjushri cut a gorge in the mountains surrounding the lake. The water, draining away, left the valley of present day Kathmandu. The lotus was then transformed into a hill and the light became the Swayabhunath StupaSwayambhunath's worshippers include Hindus, Vajrayana Buddhists of northern Nepal and Tibet, and the Newari Buddhists of central and southern Nepal. Each morning before dawn, hundreds of pilgrims will ascend the 365 steps that lead up the hill, file past the gilded Vajra (Tibetan: Dorje) and two lions guarding the entrance, and begin a series of clockwise circumambulations of the stupa (Newari Buddhists circle in the opposite, counterclockwise direction).

kathmandu Durbar square

Built between the 12th and the 18th centuries, this complex of palaces, courtyards and temples is the historic seat of royalty. It used to be the seat of ancient Malla kings of Kathmandu. The durbar Square, protected as a UNESCO World heritage site, epitomizes the religious and cultural life of the people. Other than a 17th - century stone inscription set into the wall of the palace with writings in 15 languages, interesting things to see here are: Taleju Temple (Built by King Mahendra Malla in 1549 A.D., Kal Bhairav, the god of Destruction Nautalle Darbar, Coronation Nasal Chowk, the Gaddi Baithak, the statue of king Pratap Malla, the big bell, big drum, the Jagannath Temple and three museums including the numismatic museum and the Tribhuvan Museum. Photography is prohibited inside the museums.

Famous temples, Pashupatinath

Pashupatinath Temple:
Pashupatinath Temple - situated 5 kms east of Kathmandu on the bank of sacred Bagmati river, the temple of Lord Shiva with two tiered golden roof and silver doors is famous for its super architecture.
It is a centre of annual pilgrimage on the day of Maha Shivaratri.

Monday, August 24, 2009

black holes

Black holes are the evolutionary endpoints of stars at least 10 to 15 times as massive as the Sun. If a star that massive or larger undergoes a supernova explosion, it may leave behind a fairly massive burned out stellar remnant. With no outward forces to oppose gravitational forces, the remnant will collapse in on itself. The star eventually collapses to the point of zero volume and infinite density, creating what is known as a " singularity ". As the density increases, the path of light rays emitted from the star are bent and eventually wrapped irrevocably around the star. Any emitted photons are trapped into an orbit by the intense gravitational field; they will never leave it. Because no light escapes after the star reaches this infinite density, it is called a black hole.

But contrary to popular myth, a black hole is not a cosmic vacuum cleaner. If our Sun was suddenly replaced with a black hole of the same mass, the Earth's orbit around the Sun would be unchanged. (Of course the Earth's temperature would change, and there would be no solar wind or solar magnetic storms affecting us.) To be "sucked" into a black hole, one has to cross inside the Schwarzschild radius. At this radius, the escape speed is equal to the speed of light and once light passes through, even it cannot escape.

The Schwarzschild radius can be calculated using the equation for escape speed:

vesc = (2GM/R)1/2

For photons, or objects with no mass, we can substitute c (the speed of light) for Vesc and find the Schwarzschild radius, R, to be

R = 2GM/c2

If the Sun was replaced with a black hole that had the same mass as the Sun, the Schwarzschild radius would be 3 km (compared to the Sun's radius of nearly 700,000 km). Hence the Earth would have to get very close to get sucked into a black hole at the center of our Solar System.

Saturday, August 22, 2009

Lake of nepal

Rara Lake,Nepal

Fewa Lake, Nepal

Shyphoksunda Lake, Nepal

Sunday, August 16, 2009

Shivapuri National Park

Popular as trekking, hiking and recreation area, the Shivapuri National Park offers the nearest retreat away from the hubbub of city life. The park was established as a Watershed and Wildlife Reserve in 1976. the park was declared as national ark in 2003 for the protection of its unique natural adornments. Vegetation varieties in the park include its 129 species of mushrooms while animals include 19 speces of mammals include beer, leopard, deer, wild boar, wildcat and langur monkey. The park also boasts of 177 species of birds and 102 species of butterflies.

Langtang National Park

Langtang is one of the most unspoiled national parks of Nepal. Situated North of Kathmandu, it is the most easily accessible highland sanctuary from the capital. Langtang covers 1,710 sq. km. forming the upper catchment areas of two of Nepal's largest river systems - the Trishuli and Koshi. There is great latitudinal variation, starting at 1,500 m. and ascending to the top of Mt. Langtang Lirung at 7,234 m. As a result the park has immense ecological diversity. Some of the most attractive areas of the park include the Langtang Valley, the holy lakes at Gosainkunda, and the forested hillsides above the village of Helambu. The deep gorges of Bhote Koshi and Langtang Khola are thickly forested with rhododendron, oak, maple and alder. The stretch of forest around Ghoda Tabela in the lower Langtang Valley and below Gosainkunda is inhabited by the red panda, a rare and threatened symbol of a healthy Himalayan ecosystem. Other animals, common to these forests are wild boar, Himalayan black bear, ghoral, grey langur monkey and leopard. The rare Himalayan hony guide has been sighted here and the park is also the home for Impeyan, Tragopan and kalij pheasants among others. Larch, a rare deciduous conifer, is also found in the forest of lower Langtang Valley. Further up, Himalayan tahr, musk deer and snow leopard can be found. The upper Langtang Valley is one of he few known breeding grounds of the ibils bills besides the Tibetan snow cock and snow partridge.
Like other Himalayan nature parks, Langtang has to be explored on foot. There are several possible trails to choose from depending on preference and time available. The langtang Valley is easily approached from Dhunche town and park office, which is a day's drive from Kathmandu. The upper reaches of Langtang can be reached in four days of easy walking, however, it is advisable to spend a few days around the forest at Ghoda Tabela to watch for the red panda. Once above Langtang village and the monastery at Kyangin, visitors can explore the high valley of Langshisa Yala peak and Tsero, Ri. These and other villages of upper Langtang are inhabited by people of Tibetan descent whereas the villagers of Dhunche, Bharkhu and Syabru further down are home to the Tamangs of Nepal's middle hills.

Sagarmatha National Park

Unique among natural heritage sites world-wide is the Sagarmatha National Park, which includes Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and other high peaks such as Lhotse Shar, Cho Oyu, Ama Dablam, Pumori, Kangtega, Gyachung Kang, Thamserku and Kwangde. Located North-east of Kathmandu, Sagarmatha National Park is 1,148 sq km. in area and consists of the upper catchment areas of the Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi and the Imja Khola rivers. Much of the park lies above 3,000m. Sagarmatha is rugged, with deep gorges, glaciers and unnegotiable ice and rock faces. Locally known as the 'Khumbu', it is the home of the famous Sherpa people. The Sherpas make a living by farming barley and potatoes and graze their yaks in high altitude pastures. Young Sherpas have also made their name in mountaineering and the trekking industry has of late become the community's economic mainstay. In 1979 the park was declared a World Heritage Site. Trees such as rhododendron, birch, blue pine, juniper and silver fir are found up to an altitude of 4,000 meters above which they give way to scrub and alpine plants. In late spring and summer, the hillsides around the villages of Namche Bazaar, Khumjung, Thyangboche and Thame are a riot of colours with several species of rhododendon in bloom. Wildlife most likely to be seen in Sagarmatha are the Himalaya tahr, ghoral, musk deer, pikka (mouse hare) weasel and occasionally jackal. Other rarely seen animals are Himalayan black bear, wolf, lynx and snow leopard. Birds commonly seen are Impeyan pheasant, blood pheasant, snow cock, snow pigeon, red billed and yellow billed chough, Himalayan griffin vulture and lammergeier.

Shey- Phoksundo National Psrk

Shey Phoksundo is Nepal's largest national park and covers 3,555 sq. km. Sitting astride the Dolpa and Mugu districts of western Nepal, the park was established to protect the trans-Himalayan ecosystem found only in few areas of the Kingdom. The unique park includes the Kanjiroba Himal, with many peaks of over 6,000 meters, as well as the famous Shey Monastery, the Phoksundo Lake and the Langu Gorge. The flora of the area include pine, walnut, willow, oak, poplar and cypress in the lower southern parts. In the higher reaches, pine, spruce, juniper and birch pre-dominate. The alpine areas are vegetated by berberries, wild rose and caragana. The and trans-Himalayan mountains and grassy alpine meadows to the north are almost devoid of trees but have caragana and dwarf juniper. The wildlife of Shey Phoksundo include a good popula-tion of blue sheep and ghoral, musk deer, leopard, wild dog, wolf, marmot, weasel, mouse hare, rhesus and langur monkeys. The higher reaches and the haunt of the elusive snow leopard. The adjoining Tibetan region is home to such rare animals as the great Tibetan sheep, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan gazelle and antelope, and wild yak. Bird species of the park include the Impeyan and cheer Pheasant, chough, raven, Tibetan snow cock, Tibetan twit, brown dipper, Himalayan griffon and lammergeier. The park is inhabited by people of Tibetan descent who follow the pre-Buddist Bon religion and some of the main villages are Ringmo, Pugmo, Salclang, Kugun, and Tatgaun. On the august full moon all Dolpa villagers converge on the Shey (Crystal) Mountain in a festival to walk around the holy peak three times in as many days.

nationals parks , nepal

Nepal has nine National Parks, three Wildlife Reserves, three Conservation Areas and one Hunting Reserve. About 15,000 square kilometers amounting to almost 18 percent of the total area is protected. This is an amazing commitment to conservation.

Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area

Sagarmatha National Park
Annapurna Conservation Area

Makalu Barun National Park
Shukla Phant Wildlife Reserve

Chitwan National Park
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve

Langtang National Park
Koshi-Tappu Wildlife Reserve

Shivapuri National Park
Manaslu Conservation Area

Khaptad National Park
Parsa Wildlife Reserve

Rara National Park
Bardia National Park

Friday, August 14, 2009


Trekking is by far Nepal’s biggest attraction. Most tourists embark on some trek or the other and many do multiple treks before heading back home. Some arrive each year to do a different trek each time. A trek is also the best means of seeing the country and to understand its people. Walking through emerald rice fields; through rhododendron forests; crossing streams, camping out on a hilltop in the wilderness with towering mountains in the background, make trekking an unforgettable experience.One can also do pony treks in some remote places, which is equally enthralling for visitors. Pony treks are offered mostly in western region of Pokhara, Dolpo and Lo Manthang (Mustang). The two most popular treks are the Everest Base Camp Trek and the Around Annapurna also known as the Annapurna Circuit as it goes right around the Annapurna range. There are many different treks offered in the Everest and Annapurna regions. Other popular regions are the Langtang valley, Helambu, Makalu, Manaslu, Kanchenjunga and the Arun Valley. Another popular destination in the Everest region is the Gokyo valley.

highest peaks of nepal

There are 1,310 peaks above 6000 meters of which 238 are open for climbing. The following are Nepalese peaks over 8000m in height and open for climbing: Mt. Everest (8,848m),. Kanchenjunga (8,586m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu (8,463m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Dhaulagiri (8,167m), Manaslu (8,163m) and Annapurna (8,091m).

mountaineering in nepal

Nepal first came into world focus when Tenzing Norgay Sherpa of Nepal and Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand conquered Mt. Everest in 1953. Ever since, there have been countless expeditions heading off to the Himalayas. With eight of world’s highest peaks within Nepal’s boundaries, there is tremendous interest in the Nepal Himalaya. Most of the peaks over 8000m high were conquered during the Golden Decade of Climbing in the 1950s. Climbing by then had become a national affair with various nations vying with each other to be the first to climb. Today it is all about breaking records. There are some 326 peaks in Nepal open for mountaineering today.Climbing permits for peaks in the Nepal Himalayas are issued for all seasons by the Mountaineering Section of the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. The requisite official documents must be furnished when seeking permission to climb. Around 121 peaks do not require liaison officers for expedition while the rest must be accompanied by one.Climbing gear and equipments can be bought or rented in Kathmandu or the whole expedition can be handled by mountaineering and trekking agencies. All logistics are taken care of by these agencies including gear, food, transportation, guide and porter services. They also arrange for insurance coverage. Always choose an agency that has a good track record.

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

photos of drugs

Accutane, what all should know about it

Accutane can cause severe, life-threatening birth defects if the mother takes the medication during pregnancy. Even one dose of Accutane can cause major birth defects of the baby's ears, eyes, face, skull, heart, and brain. Never use Accutane if you are pregnant.Women of child-bearing potential must agree in writing to use two specific forms of birth control and have regular pregnancy tests before, during, and after taking Accutane. Unless you have had a total hysterectomy or have been in menopause for at least a year, you are considered to be of child-bearing potential.Accutane is available only under a special program called iPLEDGE. You must be registered in the program and sign agreements to use birth control and undergo pregnancy testing as required by the program. Read all program brochures and agreements carefully.It is dangerous to try and purchase Accutane on the Internet or from vendors outside of the United States. The sale and distribution of Accutane outside of the iPLEDGE program violates the regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the safe use of this medication.

Accutane, drug

Accutane is a form of vitamin A. It reduces the amount of oil released by oil glands in your skin, and helps your skin renew itself more quickly.Accutane is used to treat severe nodular acne. It is usually given after other acne medicines or antibiotics have been tried without successful treatment of symptoms.Accutane may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Abilify, important information

Abilify is not for use in psychotic conditions that are related to dementia. Abilify may cause heart failure, sudden death, or pneumonia in older adults with dementia-related conditions. Stop using Abilify and call your doctor at once if you have the following symptoms: fever with stiff muscles and rapid heart rate; uncontrolled muscle movements; symptoms that come on suddenly such as numbness or weakness, severe headache, and problems with vision, speech, or balance. Abilify can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol, which can increase some of the side effects of Abilify. Before you take aripiprazole, tell your doctor if you regularly use other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety). They can add to sleepiness caused by Abilify. Avoid becoming overheated or dehydrated. Drink plenty of fluids, especially in hot weather and during exercise. It is easier to become dangerously overheated and dehydrated while you are taking Abilify.

Abilify, a drugs

Abilify (aripiprazole) is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain.Abilify are used to treat the symptoms of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depression). It is also used together with other medications to treat major depressive disorder in adults. Abilify may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Real estate

Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions, notably in the USA, Unites Kingdom, Canada and Australia) that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, specifically property that is fixed in location. Real estate law is the body of regulations and legal codes which pertain to such matters under a particular jurisdiction and include things such as commercial and residential real property transactions. Real estate is often considered synonymous with real property (also sometimes called realty), in contrast with personal property (also sometimes called chattel or personality under chattel law or personal property law).However, in some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land and fixtures together, as distinguished from "real property" referring to ownership of land and appurtenances, including anything of a permanent nature such as structures, trees, minerals, and the interest, benefits, and inherent rights thereof. Real property is typically considered to be Immovable property. The terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property.

forex , market size and liquidity

Presently, the foreign exchange market is one of the largest and most liquid financial markets in the world. Traders include large banks, central banks, currency speculators, corporations, governments, and other financial institutions. The average daily volume in the global foreign exchange and related markets is continuously growing. Daily turnover was reported to be over US$ 3.2 trillion in April 2007 by the Bank for International Settlements. Since then, the market has continued to grow. According to Euro money's annual FX Poll, volumes grew a further 41% between 2007 and 2008. Of the $3.98 trillion daily global turnover, trading in London accounted for around $1.36 trillion, or 34.1% of the total, making London by far the global center for foreign exchange. In second and third places respectively, trading in New York accounted for 16.6%, and Tokyo accounted for 6.0%. In addition to "traditional" turnover, $2.1 trillion was traded in derivatives.Exchange-traded FX futures contracts were introduced in 1972 at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and are actively traded relative to most other futures contracts.Several other developed countries also permit the trading of FX derivative products (like currency futures and options on currency futures) on their exchanges. All these developed countries already have fully convertible capital accounts. Most emerging countries do not permit FX derivative products on their exchanges in view of prevalent controls on the capital accounts. However, a few select emerging countries (e.g., Korea, South Africa, India) have already successfully experimented with the currency futures exchanges, despite having some controls on the capital account.FX futures volume has grown rapidly in recent years, and accounts for about 7% of the total foreign exchange market volume, according to The Wall Street Journal Europe.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Thursday, August 6, 2009


A lady is walking down the street to work and she sees a parrot in a pet store. The parrot says to her, "Hey lady , you are really ugly." Well, the lady is furious! and she storms past the store to her work. On the way home she sees the same parrot in the window and the parrot said to her, " Hey lady, you are really ugly." Well, she incredibly ticked now. The next day she sees the same parrot and the parrot says to her "Hey lady, you are really ugly."The lady is so ticked that she goes into the store and says that she would sue the store and kill the bird. The store manager says, "That's not good," and promises it wouldn't say it again. so when the lady walked past the store after work the parrot says to her ," Hey lady." She pauses and says, "Yes?" Then the bird says,"You know."

Tuesday, August 4, 2009

Kirat period in the history of nepal

Kirats were very ancient peoples who existence are described also in the Hindu epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. There is a conflict about the word Kirat. Someone says that Kirat word comes from the Sanskrit in which Kirat means people who lives in boundary area. They were from Tibet or china; somebody says they were from northern part of Persia, Egypt. Very little is known about this period in the history of Nepal. The Kirats ruled for about 526 years and were ruled by about 28 kings during that time. The first and best remembered king was Yalambar whereas the last king is Gasti. Legend credits him with meeting Indra, the lord of heaven, who ventured into the Valley in human guise. He had the dubious honor of being slain in the epic battle of the Mahabharata, in which gods and mortals fought alongside each other. Another remarkable event during this period is the coming of Gautama Buddha in the time of the seventh king named Humati who was very brave. The Buddha supposedly spent time in Patan, where he elevated the blacksmith caste to goldsmiths and bestowed upon them the name of his own clan, Sakya. The great emperor of India, Ashoka, was also a visitor to Kathmandu in this period during the rule of Jetedasti As a follower of Buddhism, Ashoka visited Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha, and erected the Ashoka pillar in Lumbini and stupas in Kathmandu. His daughter married a local prince and further spread the religion. Kirats main religion is Shaiba which means to worship lord Shiva. As the Kirat dynasty came to an end in the valley, they went to the riverside of Tamakoshi and Arun and formed a kingdom under Nepal kingdom. Kirats were still remained in the eastern mountains where they are considered to be the forefathers of today’s Rai and Limbu castes.

Sunday, August 2, 2009

soup,a liquid food

Soup are solid food in the form of liquid, which have been enhance with flavor taste and containing nutrients extracted from the solid food. It is easily digestive and palatable. A soup be distinct in flavor consistence appearance and taste. It is a second course in French classic menu though it is the first course in many meals and act of an appetizers. Thick soup(pure soup) , they are made from a base of vegetables and moistening of stock or water that is with the base of pulses or potato required no other thickening agent those of an aqueous nature for example with a base of carrot, turnip, potatoes etc. If no other garnish added to the finished pure fried cruton are served. For example tomato pure peas pure soup lentil soup etc

Friday, July 31, 2009

Tourism destination, Nepal

Nepal is a small country of area around 1,47,181 sq. km located in South Asia.It is a landlocked country surrounded by two large countries India in East, West and South and China in North.It s small in size but due to its physical structure Nepal is famous in all over the world. Especially Nepal is famous for its highest peak. Out of 10 largest peak, Nepal consist 8 of them with the highest peak Mount Everest. Nepal is also famous for their natural resources like rivers, streams, conservative areas and various sight seen. Nepal is also famous for its cultural heritage.There are many famous temples like Pashupatinath, Soyambhunath, Buddhanilkhanta, Manakamana etc. There are about 123 different castes live all around the country with different culture. Nepal is very rich in culture. Nepal is also a birthplace of lord Gautama Buddha who born in Lumbini which is famous for Buddhist as well as the other peoples. There are many national parks like Chitwan national park where people can visit the park in elephant. Nepal consists various things to attract tourists so Nepal is one of the favourite destination for the tourist. There is tourism board which is doing a lot of thing to invite tourist in Nepal such as tourism year 2011.

Thursday, July 16, 2009


The foreign exchange ( FOREX ) market exists whenever one currency is traded for another. Forex market is the largest market in the world, in terms of cash value traded, and includes trading between large banks, central banks, currency speculators, multinational corporations, governments, and other financial markets and institutions. Retail traders (small speculators) are a small part of this market may only participate indirectly through forex brokers market maker like Money, forex financial or banks.Without international trade, the currency of one country must be exchanged for that of another for settlement of a transaction. Institutions and corporations in the international market place oftentimes need a certain currency to complete a deal, or to guard themselves from the effect of currency swings and rate changes. This system involving the exchange of different currencies has created the Foreign Exchange market or Forex and more known as the global interbank currency exchange market. Like stocks, gold and real estate investment, Foreign has become a very important tool for the investment community.

Wednesday, July 15, 2009

Newspaper writing

Newspaper especially of the popular variety, aim to do two things to inform and to entertain. Entertainment may be principally found in the center pages of the newspaper, in some of the feature articles and in some local news stories. The principal aim of short new report on the front pages is to inform. Most of the newspapers are published daily, and news reporters must make sure that they have up- to the minute news. In their news reports they will aim to create a sense of immediacy, to convey the impression that they have rushed the news to the reader and that the information contained is the very latest.Reports also wish to create a sense of authenticity, that is that their news is accurate and genuine. They may thus refer to their sources to the spokesmen who informed them perhaps quoting their very words to show that has been produce is the real news.Just as reporters appear to be in a hurry to find out and them retell their facts so too the readers of the daily newspaper are often in a hurry, trying to read as much of the news as possible before rushing off to work. This is perhaps what dictates one very common from at for news reports. According to this format, the first paragraph or two of the news report contains most of the main points of the story, in a condensed or summary form. The following paragraphs go over all the main points again, but this time adding more details. Thus the reader who is in hurry can get the main idea of the storyby reading just a first paragraph.

Saturday, July 11, 2009

Nepal place for rafting

Nepal has earned the reputation of the best destinations for white rafting. Cruising down rushing river of crashing waves and swirling rapid can make up excitement of the lifetime. Rafting trips for some is the highlight of the stay of Nepal. The water in Nepal offers something for everybody.
A typical day in river begins early in the morning when participants arrive at the site. Instruction on the safety and emergency situation are given to participants before the event. Life vest and helmets are worn by participants at all times during the trip. The best time for rafting is from October through mid December and through early may. In winter hypothermia may be hindrance to some. During monsoons month of June through September, the white water section are dangerous, but gentle stretches are easy to raft on. So far the government of Nepal has opened sections of 10 rivers for commercial rafting.

Friday, July 10, 2009

Trekking destination, Nepal

Travelling is human character or nature, human being need change in life so they travel from one place to another. One way of travelling is trekking. Trekking means to travel or migrate slowly with difficulty. Nepal is one of the naturally gifted country. It consists of various natural resources like mountains, hills rivers, streams, jungle, glaciers etc. Everybody likes natural beauty and people come to Nepal to see these beauty. Trekking in Nepal is a passion for those who have discovered the beauty and challenge. A trek through Nepal is an unforgettable and life-changing experience. Nepal is excellent place for trekking because there are large amount of hills and mountains where people loves to go and see their beauties. Trekking in Nepal is a big part of the ultimate Himalayan adventure and a majority of tourists have trekking as a part of their itinerary. Mostly trekking in Nepal in the western region of Pokhara, Dolpa, and Lo Manthang (Mustang).

Stone age, evidences in Nepal

According to Hindu epics and chronicles, there is strong evidences of human existence from the ancient time in Nepal. The hills and the valleys are supposed to be formed about 13 crores years ago and the existence of human being is there from very long time. 10 lakhs years old human fossils of Ramapithicus was found in Butwal of western Nepal shows that there is existence of human before 10 lakhs years ago. On the basis of study, lethal tools are categories into three Groups
1. Pre lithic tools 2. Medieval lithic tools 3. Neolithic tools
Neolithic human are civilized and engaged in agriculture, cattle, utensils making etc. there are many Neolithic tools found all over the different places in Nepal. Near the Dhanav Pokhari of Bardiya district Pre lithic tools were found. In the south east of Kathmandu, near Dhobi Khola Buddanilkhanta medieval lithic weapons were found. Dang valley, Dolakha Charikot, Lubu in Lalitpur, Kavrapalanchok, Palpa, Jhapa etc. are the places where Neolithic weapons were found. Neolithic weapons are red, black, grey coloured made by solid stone and looked very beautiful and polished. These weapons were used for digging, cutting and to save themselves from wild animals. Some of them are small but some were very large. These evidences prove that there were human existence from the time of first human Ramapithicus and they made the weapons of stone for various reasons which were also found in Nepal.

Global warming

Global warming is one of the largest problem facing by the world now. The main cause of Global warming is greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, carbon monoxide etc. The excess production of greenhouse gases causes global warming. The pollution introduced by rapid industrialization caused warming of the earth. Industries produced large amount of carbon dioxide which is one of the main causes of warming in the earth. The main causes of greenhouse gases are burning of carbon contain materials which when burns produce carbon which combines with oxygen in atmosphere to form carbon dioxide, deforestation, industries, vehicles etc. Another greenhouse gas CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) which is produced by the electrical industries and from refrigerator. Heat energy from the sun enters the atmosphere, but not all of it can easily go out again. The green house gases absorb this energy and cause the increase in temperature. Not only those countries who produces these gases in huge amount affected by global warming. Even the few amount of these gases producing countries were also affected by global warming. The large amount of lakes were dried up, glaciers were started to melt faster, reduction of rainfall, excessive rainfall, rise of sea level where already seen by the world. The temperature of the earth is rising every year. If every nation didn't think about this problem and didn't start to solve the problem then it's very difficult to get out of this problem. So we all must started to think about it and how to save our home "Earth".

Saturday, July 4, 2009

Drugs and its effect in youth

Drugs taking by youth is increasing on an alarming rate. The situation has become grave, parents and authorities are confused about this situation. It is not only a biological but a social, a psychological and an economical problem also. Everyday we come of drug trafficking on TV, Radio and newspaper. This gives an indication how widespread it is . Each and every aspect of it should be examined thoroughly. Various factor like types of drugs used, reasons for taking them, their horrifying effects etc. should betaken into account. This kind of examination is needed because the youth of any country is great source of strength and development. The youth is biologically full of energy and psychological, full of zeal. Young age is the age of formation and it is at this stage, the disease like drug taking strikes him. If the process continuous, he could remain nothing but lifeless stock.
The problem is such a complicated one that we have to analyze it from different angles. Taking drug is not merely a physiological phenomena it is much more.The drug taking youth is so much n his world of illusory excitement, that he does not feel the need of mixing with others. In other words, he dislikes social contacts. This will affect his social development and social relations of various types. His mental attitude goes through a transformation, he becomes a totally different personality. His way of looking at the family, friends, opposite sex, profession takes new turn which is not helpful but harmful to him. Almost all his mental process liking thinking, feeling and willing are disturbed. Sometimes, simple curiosity is also responsible for taking drugs. Youth want to know, how these drugs activate the mind and sometimes becomes a daily habit and necessity. Drugs is causing big problem to every part of the world especially for youth. So the parents, teachers, doctors, social workers and even politician should begin to take steps in this direction to save youth from drugs.

Alternative sources of energy

To perform any kind of work, energy is needed. All the human life depends upon energy in the universe. The sources of energy, which stored in nature from several millions of years and cannot be replaced quickly if exhausted. Firewood, kerosene, petrol, gases, coal are the sources of energy which cannot be replaced quickly and takes millions of years to form. With the growth of modern civilization and increasing population, people in the world are using various kinds of energy so there is always high demand of energy throughout the world. Since the demand of energy is increasing enormously, the present sources of energy cannot last for a long time. Then there will be the shortage of energy and that stage is energy crisis.
In order to rid the problem of energy crisis, we must develop alternative sources of energy which can be continuously produced in the nature and cannot be exhausted. The alternative sources of energy will become the major sources of energy in future. Scientist are making several researches to develop cheapest and convenient alternative sources of energy. Solar energy , Bio-gas, Wind energy, Hydro power, Nuclear energy are some of the examples of alternative sources of energy.
The energy obtained from the sun is called Solar energy which we can get continuously and we have seen that the sun is ultimate source of many form of energy. Another source is Bio gas which is an important source of energy. Cattle dung, Human wastes and different types of bio mass in water in the absence of air decomposes to give colourless and flammable gas containing methane and carbon dioxide. Wind energy is another form of alternative sources of energy which is produced by fast moving wind. Wind energy is cheap, plentiful, clean.It is one of the earliest sources of power. Hydro power is one of the alternative sources of energy, the flowing of water is probably the oldest technique known to mankind.Hence, alternative sources of energy are must need energy to overcome the high demand of energy and to save main sources of energy for future.

Friday, July 3, 2009

Science and Society

Science is the systemic study of the physical universe and its contents by means of observations, measurements and experiments. It is an attempt to explain nature and behaviour of things. Science goes down deep into the causes of life and nature, their evoulation, their interaction and thereby attempts to improve the conditions and quality of living. Science helps in greater and more objective analysis of cause and effect, of facts and evidences, science opens new frontiers of knowledge and unravels the mysteries of nature and things. It is a way of humanity of facing challenges, overcoming difficulties and discovering new instruments and approaches to the truth. It adds and increases human knowledge in a way that nothing else can do by making researches into the unknown areas of life and nature. Science is a true living force in a society. Society with its well established law and order, facilities for research, analysis, observation, experiment etc. helps them to conduct their exploration and discover in the unknown.Without a society no scientific research and development are possible. The growth and development in science and technology are in direct relation and proportion to the development and growth of society. Science means rational approach to things and problems. It signifies dispassionate analysis, reasoning, probe and sifting truth by removing irrationality, blind faith, superstitions and fears. Science is search for better and still better living conditions through knowledge, rationality, analysis and research. It knows failures but not defeat.
Science lends dynamism to society. Science in itself is neither good nor bad. It is human beings who make science good or bad. The evil lies on the human mind which can use both science and morality for evil proposes. Science is knowledge, pure , objective and empirical engaged in making the life more easy, comfortable and less painful. There is hardly any walk or department of life which is not in the embrace of science. The true spirit of science lies in search and discovery of truth.

Illetracy, problem for developing society

Illiteracy can be defined as that state of mind that is ignorant of all forms of reading and writing and thus makes a person to be classified as an uneducated person. Illiteracy is a global phenomena. It is closely linked to poverty and exploitation. There are one billion of illiterate people in the world and nearly 70 percent of the world's illiterate person are to be found in Asia. education prepares a man for a way of life. It awakens a critical sense in him towards the society and towards the people life and values they adopt. It awakens man's consciousness. It is a process of training which makes people aware of their situation and helps them to change things through and bring about total transformation of the society they live in. Therefore a literate population is an asset of the developing society. Literacy promotes self respect of the individual and makes one more confident of one's capabilities.A large section of a developing nations are below the poverty line and denied he access to the education and health service.
Illiteracy made its impact on the development of the countries and as a result, there is a decline in their living standard. So spread of literacy and educations the only way to development. The link between illiteracy, development and population is irrefutable. An alert and literate public opinion is absolute necessary for the successful working of a democratic society. Therefore people should be educated so that they can develop an interest about the country. Country like Nepal which is basically an agricultural society. Their social structure and the national economy are based on agriculture. Modern methods of farming and use of modern equipment can increase the production to a great extent so an educated farmer can revolutionize farming and can contribute a great deal to the nation's economy.Therefore illiteracy is a stumbling block to the development process and undoubtedly education is an important component of development. So mission like eradicating illiteracy has to spread all over the society to make all the people literate.

Thursday, July 2, 2009


Journalism means writing for newspaper or magazines. It is communication of the information through writing in periodicals interest and newspapers. The collection and editing of materials of current interest for presentation, publication or broadcast is journalism. The word journalism comes from French word "Jour" which means the day , that means the event and information of a day through written words, sound or picture. Journalism is a kind of art and journalist is a kind of Artist. Journalism is for the people and about the people. Nowadays many people from the worked make Journalism as occupation and it is developing as a industry. It is the commutation of news but it may also have certain features for the entertainment of the reader. There are different types of Journalism according to subject matter, for example political, economic, social, education, sports, etc.
The important of journalism in society is very important. It communicates the different information to the society. It gives the education and aware the people. It is noble profession where great men also joined this profession.It is the voice of voiceless. Journalism changed the society through the education. It gives awareness so journalism is called forth estate of state.The most important base of the journalism is faithfulness and it is like wealth. The solo aim of journalism should be service